You may have heard of lupus, but do you know the most common lupus symptoms to look out for? You should, because this autoimmune disease affects at least 1.5 million Americans and more than 5 million people worldwide. (1)
Even more alarming, more than 16,000 new cases of lupus are reported each year in the U.S. alone. This is especially serious for women, particularly those who are young to middle-aged women of childbearing age, because about 90 percent of lupus patients are women.
The good news is if you identify lupus symptoms early enough, you can prevent or naturally treat lupus. So what is lupus exactly and what are the symptoms of lupus you need to be aware of? Read on to find out.
What Is Lupus?
Lupus is a type of chronic autoimmune disorder that affects many different organs in the body, causing symptoms that impact nearly every aspect of someone’s life. For example, rashes, mood changes, chronic fatigue, headaches and bodily pains are all common lupus symptoms. Lupus affects many more women than men, but both sexes and people of all ages and ethnicities can develop lupus. (2)
According to a report published in the Maedica Journal of Clinical Medicine, because lupus shares many symptoms with other illnesses — including thyroid disorders, fibromyalgia, adrenal fatigue, Lyme disease or other autoimmune disorders — it can be hard for patients to receive a proper diagnosis of lupus. (3) Some experts have even nicknamed lupus “the great imitator” because lupus symptoms are often confused with various other health problems, often leading to a long road of recovery for patients. Most people with lupus are diagnosed in their 20s or 30s, sometimes after years of “not feeling right” and visiting many different practitioners for tests.
Lupus is an autoimmune disease because it’s a problem of the immune system. It’s caused by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, but having a family history is not a guarantee for developing lupus, nor is it contagious. Symptoms of lupus vary from mild to life-threatening, often coming and going based on other events in someone’s life.
Although it’s a chronic disease that poses serious risks, a lot of people with lupus can manage their disorder well with treatment and are able to carry on mostly normal lives. Today, lupus is treated with conventional medications — including immunosuppressant drugs and anti-inflammatory medications — but can also be managed naturally with alternative treatments, such as herbs, chiropractic adjustments, massage therapy, meditation and a nutrient-dense diet.
Lupus Symptoms & Warning Signs
Lupus affects every person differently, and there are a wide range of symptoms that can be attributed to the disease. There are two kinds of lupus that cause different sets of lupus symptoms: discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). DLE mainly affects skin is usually triggered by exposure to sunlight that causes skin lesions. But DLE usually doesn’t damage internal organs or glands like the other form of lupus does. SLE, on the other hand, affects the entire body and is more serious. (4)
Certain lupus symptoms are usually only temporary (like skin rashes on the face), while others can be persistent and cause serious complications (like joint pain or ongoing fatigue). Lupus is considered to be a chronic autoimmune disorder because symptoms tend to last longer than six weeks and often for many years, unlike other autoimmune disorders that might go away more easily with lifestyle changes, such as Hashimoto’s disease.
Although it’s much more common in women, lupus symptoms in women and men are usually the same. However, anyone with lupus who experiences high amounts of stress is more likely to experience worsened lupus symptoms due to having lower immune function. The majority of people who suffer from lupus experience episodes or “flare-ups” and remission.
The Molly Fund For Fighting Lupus describes lupus symptoms as “very unpredictable” and says that flare-ups can be mild to severe. (5) Symptoms tend to become worse for a period of time but then go away afterward, only to come back at a later time. Because lupus symptoms are always coming and going, especially in response to stressful events, this is another reason lupus is difficult to recognize and diagnose.
According to the Lupus Foundation, the most common signs and symptoms of lupus include: (6)
- Fatigue and lethargy: Approximately 90 percent of all people with lupus experience some level of fatigue, according to the Johns Hopkins Lupus Center. This can make it hard to work, exercise, take care of a family and keep up with everyday demands. (7)
- Frequent high temperatures (fever): Having recoccurring low-grade fevers around 99–101 degrees Fahrenheit is one of the earliest signs of lupus and could be a sign of inflammation or infection.
- Muscle or joint pain: Stiffness and swelling can occur around certain affected joints or muscles. Certain joints might also appear red, inflamed and warm, and pain might get worse when moving.
- Poor circulation in extremities (fingers and toes): This is known as Raynaud’s phenomenon and causes fingers and toes to turn white or blue for a short period of time.
- Skin rashes: This includes a rash on the face that covers the cheeks and bridge of the nose. Estimates show that about 50 percent of people with lupus experience a butterfly-shaped facial rash, hives and photosensitivity. Redness, peeling and itchiness can sometimes develop. Some people also develop lesions on their skin about the size of a coin called discoid lesions.
- Sensitivity to sunlight: Many people with lupus easily become sun-burned, develop skin lesions and have skin itchiness caused by sun exposure.
- Easily becoming short of breath and having chest pains: It’s common with lupus to experience pulmonary and respiratory problems since the lungs and airways can become inflamed due to swelling. Pleuritic chest pains are a symptom caused by inflammation of the diaphragm and swelling of the blood vessels around the lungs.
- Anemia and abnormal blood clotting: This contributes to fatigue and other problems.
- Fluid retention and swelling (edema): Swelling is especially common in the feet, legs, hands, and/or around eyes or face.
- Dry eyes and blurred vision: Sjogren’s syndrome is sometimes triggered by lupus, which is a type of autoimmune disorder that affects the glands responsible for the production of tears and saliva. The eyes can feel gritty or dry due to lupus, and ulcers can also form inside the mouth or around the nose. Other people with lupus experience damaged blood vessels in their eyes and nerve damage that makes it hard to control movement of the eyes.
- Digestive problems: This can include loss of appetite, heartburn, acid indigestion or other gastrointestinal problems. GI problems tend to get worse with stress and sometimes cause a loss of appetite and weight loss. Weight loss can occur in patients with active SLE, but some who take corticosteroid medications to fight the disease might start to gain a lot of weight unintentionally.
- Trouble sleeping normally: Many people experience some level of insomnia, sometimes caused by sleeping too much during the daytime due to fatigue.
- Hair loss or changes in hair texture: Due to scalp inflammation and irritation, hair can fall out by the clump or slowly. Facial or body hair might also fall out, including the eyebrows or eyelashes. Some people also experience brittle hair that breaks easily and won’t grow back.
- Loss of libido: This can be due to stress, fatigue and hormonal changes. Lupus symptoms for women might also include vaginal dryness and irregular periods.
- Headaches and mood changes: This includes cognitive impairments, such as brain fog, confusion and memory less.
Lupus is a serious illness and poses the risk for various complications if left untreated and unmanaged. Some complications associated with lupus can include:
- Lung damage: A complication called vanishing (or shrinking) lung syndrome can develop when the diaphragmatic muscles become very weak and the lungs literally start to shrivel up and move. This causes shortness of breath and higher susceptibility to infections.
- Kidney damage: Nephritis is a type of kidney inflammation that develops when the kidneys cannot properly filter toxins and waste from the blood. This can cause swelling, high blood pressure, blood or dark colors in the urine, and pain above the kidneys.
- Metabolic and thyroid disorders: Lupus raises the risk for autoimmune thyroid diseases, which can negatively impact someone’s metabolism, menstrual cycle or hormone levels, weight, heart, skin, kidneys, and liver. Symptoms can vary a lot since some people with lupus experience an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism) while others have an overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism).
- Connective tissue and nerve damage (known as neuropathy): Lupus is capable of causing damage to the spinal cord and brain, which affects nerve signaling and also neurotransmitter production. This is one reason that people with lupus develop cognitive impairment, mood changes, and even seizures or stroke. Studies have found that people with lupus are also more likely to deal with the effects of anxiety and depression due to a complex combination of biochemical abnormalities that affect different parts of the brain. (8)
- A higher risk for heart disease: Long-term inflammation caused by lupus can damage the heart, blood vessels and tissue surrounding the heart.
Lupus Facts & Numbers
- The Lupus Foundation of America reports that at least 1.5 million Americans have lupus (and more than 5 million people throughout the world). This number might even be much higher, but it’s a hard disorder to diagnose and large studies/surveys reporting the prevalence rate have not been conducted.
- Every year in the U.S alone more than 16,000 new cases of lupus are reported.
- Women are most likely to develop lupus, especially young to middle-aged women of “childbearing age” (between the ages of about 15–44). About 90 percent of all lupus patients are women. (9) Pregnancy, menopause and hormonal changes can all contribute to lupus.
- Men, children, older women and teenagers can also develop lupus, especially if they’re African-American, Asian or Native American. People of these ethnicities are believed to be two to three times more likely to develop lupus than Caucasians.
Lupus vs. Lyme Disease: How Are They Related and Different?
Lupus shares many symptoms with Lyme Disease — not to mention other common health problems caused by inflammation and autoimmune reactions like rheumatoid arthritis, blood disorders and diabetes. Symptoms that Lyme disease and lupus have in common include fatigue, heart palpitations, kidney damage, skin rashes, nerve damage, joint pain, and higher risk for other problems like depression and heart complications. Doctors often confuse these two illnesses initially and are careful to track symptoms over time in order to be able to tell them apart, which is very important considering they have different causes and treatment approaches.
While lupus is an autoimmune disorder that can develop over time, Lyme disease is caused by an inflammatory response that’s triggered initially due to a tick bite. The exact way that Lyme disease progresses is controversial and still under a lot of debate. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention states that there are around 20,000 new cases of Lyme disease identified each year in the U.S. alone, especially during the summer when tick bites are more common.
Both Lyme disease and lupus cause skin rashes for many people, although the two usually appear differently on the skin. A “butterfly rash” on the face is most common with lupus, while a “bull’s-eye” rash ( called erythema migrans) is more common with Lyme disease. (10) Kidney malfunction and damage is another shared symptom along with electrolyte imbalances, dizziness, weakness, changes in urine and dehydration.
One serious complication that can occur due to both disorders is atrioventricular block, which is caused by a dangerous blockage in heart vessels and sometimes reoccurring heart palpitations and blood pressure problems. In patients with lupus, atrioventricular block is normally triggered by electrolyte imbalances and kidney malfunctioning, while in Lyme disease patients it’s caused by inflammation of the heart.
Atrioventricular block (also called AV block) results in inflammation of the atria and ventricles of the heart, changing the way nerve impulses travel to and from the heart (similar to atrial fibrillation). Sometimes atrioventricular block goes away on its own, but other times it can lead to permanent damage that triggers other heart problems and requires a pacemaker or other interventions to control. (11)
As you’ll learn below, just like with lupus, treating Lyme disease naturally involves boosting immune function, lowering bacterial infections, and treating toxicity, gut problems and inflammation.
Natural Lupus Treatments
Some of the ways you can help prevent and treat lupus naturally include:
1. Preventing Nutrient Deficiencies
Nutrient deficiencies lower immune function, can contribute to fatigue, and make you more susceptible to illnesses like viruses and infections. People with lupus should make it a priority to eat a well-rounded, unprocessed diet in order to maintain a healthy body weight, keep blood pressure levels within a healthy range, control cholesterol and prevent fatigue.
Some of the best foods for managing lupus symptoms include fresh vegetables and fruit; sources of omega-3 fats like wild-caught salmon; nuts and seeds; coconut oil; bone broth and lean sources of protein.
In fact, a 2016 study on mice found that consuming DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), an omega-3 fatty acid, stopped lupus symptoms triggered by crystalline silica. According to Jack Harkema, a researcher in the study, “Ninety-six percent of the lung lesions were stopped with DHA after being triggered by the silica.” (12) You can get DHA from consuming wild-caught salmon, sardines, herring and mackerel or by taking an omega-3 fish oil supplement. (13)
One specific food that people with lupus should avoid is alfalfa seeds and alfalfa sprouts, since certain compounds in alfalfa have been shown to trigger the immune system. (14)
2. Getting Enough Rest, Relaxation and Sleep
High amounts of stress can weaken the immune system and cause hormonal changes that lead to inflammation. Stress also makes fatigue worse and interferes with sleep. Managing stress and getting enough sleep are very important for controlling lupus symptoms because lupus patients are already at a heightened risk for depression, anxiety, confusion and memory loss.
Sleeping for at least eight to nine hours daily and reducing stress through meditation, healing prayer, therapy, exercise, yoga or tai chi, creative projects, and time spent outdoors can also help.
3. Avoiding Smoking and Toxicity Exposure
Smoking increases lung damage and also raises the risks for lupus complications like heart disease, stroke and infections. Cigarettes can also impair immunity, slow down blood flow, raise blood pressure levels and worsen skin inflammation.
Other chemical toxins that contribute to lupus and worsen inflammation include trichloroethylene (found in unfiltered water and sometimes dust), endocrine disruptors, and chemicals from household or beauty products, such as paints, hair products and dyes.
4. Staying Active
Exercise is important for people with lupus because it helps keep joints flexible, makes the heart and lungs stronger, helps raise immune function, and controls tress. Since many people with lupus experience muscle and joint pains on top of intense fatigue, low-impact activities like walking, cycling, swimming, yoga, dancing, water aerobics and Pilates are all good choices for activities.
5. Protecting Your Skin
Lupus can be triggered by sun exposure and also causes skin to become extra fragile and vulnerable to burns and sun damage. Make sure to protect your skin from sunburns by staying out of the sun during the brightest hours of the day, using non-toxic sunscreen with a sun protection factor of 50 or higher, wearing sunglasses, and wearing a hat. Natural products should also be used on the skin that won’t worsen inflammation and irritation, instead of beauty products with synthetic ingredients and chemicals.
What Causes Lupus?
Although the exact cause of lupus isn’t known, experts know that lupus is triggered by abnormal changes in someone’s immune system. Like other autoimmune disorders, the immune systems of people with lupus are mistakenly triggered into fighting healthy tissue and cells within the body because of the false impression that the body is being threatened. (15)
When the immune system thinks that it’s under attack by viruses, bacteria, food allergens or germs, it produces antibody proteins to help fight off the foreign invaders, but these proteins also damage healthy tissue in the process. This causes inflammation and damage to various body parts, along with numerous symptoms. Some of the glands, organs and tissues damaged by lupus include the thyroid gland, heart, gut/digestive system, lungs and kidneys. The immune system can produce numerous auto-antibodies that contribute to lupus, especially one type called antinuclear antibodies.
Genetics play a role in the development in lupus, and experts think that certain people are born with genes that impact the way their immune systems work, making them more susceptible to getting lupus. Other risk factors for lupus include: (16)
- taking certain medicines that affect the immune system
- toxicity and exposure to chemicals
- poor gut health and leaky gut syndrome
- nutrient deficiences
- smoking cigarettes
- a history of infections
- high levels of stress that wear down the immune system
- hormonal imbalances, such as estrogen dominance
Key Takeaways About Lupus Symptoms
- Lupus is an autoimmune disorder that causes varied symptoms, including fatigue, swelling, joint pain, headaches, nerve damage and skin rashes.
- Lupus doesn’t have one single cause but is triggered by a combination of factors, including genetic inheritance, inflammation, a poor diet, poor gut health, toxicity and stressful life episodes.
- Natural treatments for lupus include eating an anti-inflammatory diet, resolving nutrient deficiencies and allergies, controlling stress, exercising, and protecting the skin from too much sun exposure.